apt的安装

[ 2005/12/13 15:07 | by gOxiA ]
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1、apt的安装;

#rpm -ivh http://ftp.freshrpms.net/pub/fedora/linux/extras/4/i386/apt-0.5.15cnc7-6.fc4.i386.rpm

2、导入GPG签名;

#rpm --import http://svn.rpmforge.net/svn/branches/rpms/matthias/apt/RPM-GPG-KEY.freshrpms

3、加Fedora core 4.0的源;

在/etc/apt/目录中找到 sources.list,在里面加如下的一行;
rpm http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386 core extras updates freshrpms

4.apt 简单的应用;

1]安装和配置好apt的第一步是执行 apt-get update ,目的是来从apt源中取回软件包的列表;也就是我们上面说的那个sources.list提到的源;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get update
You don't seem to have one or more of the needed GPG keys in your RPM database.
Importing them now...
Get:1 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386 release [1834B]
Fetched 1834B in 8s (222B/s)
Get:1 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/core pkglist [518kB]
Get:2 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/core release [151B]
Get:3 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/extras pkglist [1262kB]
Get:4 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/extras release [155B]
Get:5 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/updates pkglist [1107kB]
Get:6 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/updates release [157B]
Get:7 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/freshrpms pkglist [65.3kB]
Get:8 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/freshrpms release [161B]
Fetched 2952kB in 59s (49.9kB/s)
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done

2]安装、升级、移除软件包的用法;

a)软件包的安装;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install 软件包名称

注:不要加版本号,软件名就好;

比如我们想安装或者升级firefox ,就可以直接用 apt-get install firefox ;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install firefox
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following packages will be upgraded
firefox (1.0.4-4 => 1.0.6-1.1.fc4)
1 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 removed and 234 not upgraded.
Need to get 19.2MB of archives.
After unpacking 17.0kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386/updates firefox 0:1.0.6-1.1.fc4 [19.2MB]
Fetched 19.2MB in 6m25s (49.8kB/s)
Checking GPG signatures... ########################################### [100%]
Committing changes...
Preparing... ########################################### [100%]
1:firefox ########################################### [100%]
Done.

b)移除软件包;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get remove 软件包名
举例:
[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get remove firefox

c)对系统全面升级;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get upgrade
[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get dist-upgrade

这两个功能差不多;

d)常用的参数选项;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install -y 软件包名

比如:
[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install -y gaim

注:如果意外中断的包下载和安装,可以用-y参数来继续下载安装,如上面gaim我下载到10%,可以用上面的命令接着来下载安装或者升级;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install -d 软件包名

比如:

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get install -d

注:只是下载软件包,不解包,也不安装,下载到本地机的目录为 /var/cache/apt/archives

3]清理apt-get 后下载下来的包和未完成的包;

[root@localhost beinan]# apt-get clean

通过apt-get下载下来的包存放在 /var/cache/apt/archives目录中;有时我们中断一些正在apt-get 的包,这样的包没有完全下载下来;我们也可以清理掉;也可以用继续接着下载安装,也可以清理掉;

这样apt-get clean 就会删除 已经下载完成的位于/var/cache/apt/archives目录的所有包;也会清理掉下载未完成的包位于/var/cache/apt/archives/partial/

这个功能还是比较有用的,因为apt-get 下载和安装量极大,要定期清理。
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